Soviet armies " and " to enter into co-operation with the Soviet Com-
manders in the event of the reasuinption of Polish-Soviet relations/' Only
an agreement between the two Powers could form the basis of any co-
ordinated operations of the Polish Home Army with the Russian forces.
Any such agreement would have to contain the most important of all
clauses, namely, the setting up of a Polish administration in the re-
On the basis of an order issued by the Government in London,, its
representative in Poland issued a Proclamation on November 15, in-
structing the population on how to conduct themselves in the event of a
Russian advance into the territories of the Polish Republic :
" On these territories/' read the Proclamation^ " the Poles have been
living together for centuries with the Ukrainians, White Ruthenians and
Lithuanians, all of whom benefited equally by the rights and privileges of a
Polish citizen. The Polish Republic guarantees them henceforth and in
the future all liberties and rights to cultural, economical and social develop-
" In its steady withdrawal the German Army is ruthlessly destroying the
provinces ... I call on all citizens not to panic but to remain at their posts.
Do not leave your villages and towns.
" Every citizen must protect his house from fire and all buildings and
public institutions which are necessary for the normal life of the community.
" There is the possibility that, in withdrawing, the German troops will
take our youths with them in order to send them to forced labour in Germany,
or conscript them into the German Army. It is the duty of all who are
able to carry arms, to keep away from the roads of retreat of the Germans,
and to seek shelter in the forests from any such attempts at kidnapping.
" The citizens of the Polish Republic should behave with restraint and
hi a gentlemanly fashion in the presence of the intruding Soviet troops.
Remember., the Russians are the Allies of our Great Allies in the war against
<c On every portion of our Eastern land, even the most minute, which the
Germans quit—the Poles, as centenarian co-landlords of these areas should,
until the re-occupation of these lands by the legal authorities of the Polish
Republic, protect all national property and remove all traces of German
" Perhaps the war front may temporarily divide us, but there is no force
existing in this world which could divide and partition the Polish nation
for all time. The necessity of a military defeat of Germany, the aim
towards which we are all tending, can cause the presence of Soviet armies
on our territories. Remember, however, that the Polish authorities will
always be about you and a united Polish people is behind you.
" ... All citizens must perform their duty until the end."
On January 5, 1944, cables from Moscow informed the world that
advanced Russian patrols had the day before crossed the Polish frontier
near Olevsk in Polesie, somewhere about the middle of that frontier. In
a short time a definite answer to the question^ " What policy does the
Soviet Union intend to follow,, when it comes to occupy countries outside
its own frontiers ? " was to be given.
The preliminaries had not looked at all favourable. After Teheran> in